“The hidden life of trees” by Peter Wohlleben

Wohlleben’s book was originally published in German in 2015 and then translated and published in English in 2016. The book attracted a lot of mainstream interest due to Wohlleben’s “wood wide web” description of trees communicating with each other and sharing nutrients. I was aware of this at the time and I must admit the way he presented it all put me off. But I’ve now read the book and that’s only a small part of the wide range of topics he covers.

Peter Wohlleben began his career as a forester for the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany but became disillusioned with the “big forestry” style of management and began managing a beechwood for the local council of Hummel. He published several successful books about forests, nature, and threats to the environment, before “The hidden life of trees”.

Working in woodland owned by the local council, Wohlleben gave guided tours and has described the necessity of translating the language of scientists into words other people can understand. This is mentioned in this nine minute interview by Fredrik Skavlan, which summarises the most well-known points of the book.

I believe it is this “translation” process which led Wohlleben to adopt some very anthropomorphic language, giving trees human characteristics. Trees “feel pain”, “learn”, and “remember”. This language is easier for people to relate to and provides excellent sound bites for press releases and interviews. But feeling pain, learning, and remembering are more than just responding to stimuli and changing state. They all require a level of awareness not just response. There is no evidence that trees have that, and it is misleading to talk as if they do.

“Learning” in particular requires the ability to absorb new information. A thermostat does not “learn” that the room is too hot. It just responds to that stimulus in a way determined by its design. The design already embodies the state of being “too hot”. The device does not learn about being too hot: its pre-existing response to that pre-defined stimulus is just triggered when it happens. This is equally true of organisms like trees which are designed by natural selection rather than electrical engineers. It’s true of biological thermostats in humans too for that matter: I didn’t “learn” when to sweat. My ancestors evolved it as a response to the stimulus of being too hot. I did learn how to use a smartphone though, by absorbing information that none of my ancestors had the chance to acquire.

As I mentioned, all this anthropomorphic language really put me off the book. There was a dose of it in an episode of “Start the week” which I caught on Radio 4 in 2018. It’s still available (and also features Ruth Pavey pitching her book “A wood of one’s own” which I reviewed last week.) It prompted another listener to buy me a paper copy. But but but, now I have actually read it, the anthropomorphic stuff falls away and we quickly get down to the substance.

The book is 250 pages of main text and an easy read: I read it in about four hours in two sittings. There are 36 short chapters, with few even 10 pages long. This creates a very episodic feel, almost like reading the collected articles of a regular newspaper column. Each chapter is focussed on one topic and although they are grouped together in broad themes, you could easily read a single chapter in isolation.

Chapter by chapter, Wohlleben displays his breadth of experience with forests and trees. I say both because his central thesis is that trees form a forest not just by standing in a group but by cooperating. Forests create microclimates and trees benefit from that, and so they have some interest in the survival of their neighbours. In the right circumstances, they will even help neighbours of other species. So a forest can act as a superorganism, rather like an ant colony.

Prof. Suzanne Simard

One dramatic example was established by Suzanne Simand at the University of British Columbia in Canada, who wrote an afterward to the book and whose research provides a lot of its scientific foundation. She tagged sugars with trace amounts of radioactive carbon and discovered that adjacent deciduous birch and evergreen Douglas fir trees pass sugars back and forth during the year depending on who has what and who needs what. Some “mother trees” use the same mechanisms to feed the saplings growing in the shade around their bases, and so they can wait until the parent trees eventually die.

It was Simand who coined the term “wood wide web” as a catchy name for the
mycorrhizal network of fungi which form underground alliances with trees. It has long been known that fungi can convert nitrogen from the air into compounds which plants need, and are able to pass them to trees via the thin fibres on their roots and in return receive sugars produced by photosynthesis up in the sunlight. Subsequent research revealed that a single fungal organism can be exchanging nutrients with multiple trees, perhaps even of different species. Since fungi are able to grow very long filaments through the soil, these networks can cover hundreds of metres.

There’s a TED talk describing her first experiments on this and then the wider picture:

As well as chapters devoted to trees themselves, some other animals are represented in Wohlleben’s book. There are some pages about beavers, with this important observation about why they build dams:

Because water levels can fluctuate wildly with the seasons, many beavers also build dams, blocking streams and turning them into large ponds. Beaver ponds slow the flow of water from the forest, and extensive wetlands form in the areas around the dams. Alders and willows like to grow here; beeches, which cannot stand having wet feet, die off. But the upstart trees in the feeding zone around the lodge don’t get to grow old, for they are the beavers’ living larder. Although beavers damage the forest around them, they exert a positive influence overall by regulating water supplies.

There are a few mistakes that I noticed. Coppice wasn’t a favoured management style because the medieval poor couldn’t wait for trees to grow: it was favoured because pole sized stems are easier to work, especially without powered machinery. That sort of thing. Compare that with the breadth of knowledge beyond the immediate practice and ecology of forestry displayed by a figure like Oliver Rackham.

The passage below also stood out, in contrast to the emerging consensus that herbivores and their predators have a huge rule in shaping forest ecosystems over time. Wohlleben seems unaware of this idea which motivates many of the moves towards rewilding and the reestablishment of these dynamic ecosystems:

A forest would have no problem doing without its larger inhabitants. Deer, wild boar, carnivores, and even most birds wouldn’t leave any yawning gaps in the ecosystem. Even if they were all to disappear at once, the forest would simply go on growing without many adverse effects. Things are completely different when it comes to the tiny creatures under their feet.

In 2018 an illustrated edition of the book was published, with less of the original text but lavish and beautiful photographs of tree and forests. A coffee table book, but one with more substance to its text than a lot of large format books of tree pictures. So perhaps a good choice as a carefully chosen gift to entice someone into the subject once they want to explore beyond the photographs.

All in all, once I got past my initial issues with the anthropomorphic language, I enjoyed the full, unillustrated edition of “The hidden life of trees”. It’s a book with a particular message about the importance of the mycorrhizal network and all its various consequences, but it’s also a worthwhile collection of forestry facts and experiences.

 

“A wood of our own” by Julian Evans

I read “A wood of our own” by Julian Evans before I bought Century Wood, way back in 2007. I was already pretty sure I wanted to own a woodland, and Evans’ book helped confirm it. It’s become the book I compare other woodland owners’ books against, and I’ve looked through it again after reading and reviewing “A wood of one’s own” by Ruth Pavey.

Back in 2007 I had already read Evans’ book “Badgers, beeches, and blisters”, which is out of print but still available as a free PDF from woodlands.co.uk. That is very much a How To book with a lot of practical advice. At the same time as “A wood of our own”, I bought Chris Starr’s “Woodland management: a practical guide” and Ken Broad’s “Caring for small woods”. Both of these are more formal (very formal in Starr’s case: it’s a textbook) How To books in the vein of “Badgers, beeches, and blisters”, whereas “A wood of our own” is autobiographical. A first person account of Evans and his wife and her brother purchasing and managing the wood.

Continue reading ““A wood of our own” by Julian Evans”

“A wood of one’s own” by Ruth Pavey

“A wood of one’s own” by Ruth Pavey has been out for a couple of years but I’ve only got round to reading it this month. For me, it was a bit of curate’s egg. It’s well written (there are gushing reviews in the press) but the content was rather disappointing: the gardening correspondent of the local paper in Highgate and Hampstead buys a 4 acre wood in Somerset, and uses it for gardening. Maybe that is too harsh. It’s really an orchard after all, and Pavey has a lot of awareness of what is going to set people’s teeth on edge: planting garden flowers in woodland, for instance.

Pavey has family and childhood connections to Somerset, and so it was not entirely surprising that in 1999 she ended up buying her four acres there. Mixed scrub, orchard, some big trees, and lots of brambles and nettles.

Continue reading ““A wood of one’s own” by Ruth Pavey”

Cutting brambles with a hedge trimmer

I’ve written before about mowing rides and glades with a scythe mower and a brush cutter before that. Six foot high nettles, cow parsley and saplings present no obstacle to this machine, but brambles are another story. Their branches run horizontally, tangle together and root when they touch the ground, creating a strong mesh. They need both horizontal and vertical cuts to cut them up and separate them from their roots. Last year I bought a petrol hedgetrimmer and yesterday I used it on big thicket of  brambles blocking a ride: its first proper outing.

Continue reading “Cutting brambles with a hedge trimmer”

Trail cameras

I’ve been using trail cameras at Century Wood for the last couple of years. To start with I got a camera for security: to see if people were coming in to the wood following occasional thefts from my neighbours over the years. It quickly became clear that wildlife was a much more interesting use of the camera, and I’ve accumulated a good sample of images of the wood’s wildlife.

The first camera I bought was a Bushnell Trophy Cam HD Max with 8 megapixels. I bought it a year or so before starting to use it properly, and it lasted just over a year before it was stolen. I placed it on the edge of the main clearing in the wood, and I never saw evidence of people on the images. So it may have been taken the first time someone came across it. Then I bought a cheap Apeman camera from Amazon, at 12 megapixels, which is still there – in a harder to spot location – 18 months later.

Continue reading “Trail cameras”

Renaturing vs rewilding

For several years rewilding has been one of the influences on how I manage Century Wood. It’s never been an entirely comfortable fit though, since “wild” is quite an extreme goal. I’ve contented myself with encouraging elements of wildness but now I think it would be more productive for me to talk about “renaturing”, and I imagine a spectrum with wildwood at one end and very controlled plantation forests at the other.

Rewilding started to enter the public consciousness in Britain about the time I bought Century Wood in 2008, and in 2013 George Monbiot’s book “Feral” gave it a lot of publicity and provided a popular manifesto. I was already thinking about ways to encourage large scale reforestation, and Monbiot’s book crystallized the way in which British uplands are kept bare by sheep, deer, and EU Common Agricultural Policy basic payments.

Continue reading “Renaturing vs rewilding”

Flood information sources

This is now my third post about flooding, and it is raining again. First I posted about flooded lanes near Mill Meece and the ditches by Century Wood almost bursting their banks, and then two weeks later when the water level was much lower. During this time I’ve gathered some useful links with live information and predictions about water levels in England, which I describe in this post. I hope this will be useful to other wood owners and woodlanders in general. There are similar resources in Wales and Scotland.

Continue reading “Flood information sources”